Heart blockage is a phrase used by patients to describe coronary artery disease, which is caused by plaque buildup in the arteries that feed blood to the heart muscle. If the blockage is significant enough, the muscle will be deprived of the blood it needs to operate, especially when increased blood flow is necessary, such as while exercising.
Symptoms:- include chest discomfort and shortness of breath as a result this.
A stent is a little tube that your doctor might place in a clogged artery to keep it open. Depending on where the stent is inserted, it restores blood or other fluid flow.
Metal or plastic stents are available. Bigger stents called stent-grafts are utilized to treat larger arteries.
A stent is required:
When plaque stops a blood artery, stents are frequently required. Plaque is a material made up of cholesterol and other chemicals that adheres to the inside of a vessel’s walls.
A stent can be inserted in numerous ways:
A stent is normally inserted in a minimally invasive surgery by your doctor. A tiny incision will be made, and a catheter will be used to route specialized equipment through your blood vessels to the location that requires a stent. Typically, this incision is made in the groin or arm. One of these gadgets may have a camera to assist your doctor in guiding the stent.
During the treatment, your doctor may utilize an angiography, which is a type of imaging method, to assist guide the stent through the conduit.
Your doctor will use the required equipment to detect the damaged or blocked vessel and place the stent in place.
Kidney, Lungs, Heart, Liver, Bone Marrow Transplant
A kidney transplant is performed n to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased person into the body of a person whose kidneys no longer function. When the kidney loses its filtering ability, the toxic fluids and wastes start accumulating in the body which can result in kidney failure and increased blood pressure. Secondary diseases include Diabetes, High blood pressure, chronic Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease. A kidney transplant is not a cure for a failed kidney, the patient still needs to be regularly medicated to ensure that the new kidney does not get rejected. Due to the shortage of healthy kidney donors, a patient might have to wait on the waiting list for years before they could get a healthy kidney. Hernia, internal bleeding, chronic pain, graft rejection, bladder infection, etc are some common side effects of a kidney transplant.
A lung or a pulmonary transplant is a procedure when one or both of the defected or diseased lungs are replaced by a healthy set of lungs, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is not performed until plenty of medications and other procedures have been tried to restore the health of the lung/lungs. In some extreme cases, the lung is transplanted along with the donor’s heart. Unhealthy lungs can reduce the amount of oxygen intake in the body. Diseases that prevent this are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Even after successful surgery, there is always the risk of rejection and side effects may include weight gain, facial hair, stomach problems etc.
A heart transplant is to replace a non-functioning heart with a healthy one and it is performed by a cardiac surgeon. It is done due to weakening of cardiac muscles, heart valve diseases, congenital heart diseases, ventricular arrhythmias or conditions that can’t be controlled by medication. However, people with advanced age, having multiple medical conditions, active infection, etc might not be good candidates for a heart transplant.
To remove a non-functioning liver, transplant surgeons replace it with a healthy functioning liver from a donor. The liver is an important organ that synthesizes proteins and breaks down nutrients from food, liver failure can result in viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. A liver transplant is only performed when all other forms of treatment are ruled out and the patient is healthy enough for surgery. The patient must be at least 6 months sober before the surgery. Once you get evaluated by a transplantation centre you get placed on the national waiting list for a deceased donor.
A bone marrow transplant or a stem cell transplant is a medical treatment that replaces bone marrow with healthy cells. It is used to treat diseases like cancer like leukaemia, myeloma, lymphoma, and immune and auto-immune diseases that might affect the bone marrow. The stem cells are those cells that make copies of themselves and convert them into whatever cells the body might need. These cells are contained in a soft tissue called bone marrow, which is found in the centre of most bones. Autologous transplant takes stem cells from a patient’s own body, the stem cells are removed from the body prior to the beginning of the treatments for cancer. Because the chemothera[y can further weaken the stem cells and the immune system. Once the chemotherapy is done the healthy stem cells are returned to the body. Allogeneic transplant is when the stem cells come from a donor after chemotherapy or the radiation therapy
Brain & Spine Surgery
These types of surgeries are performed with great technique by trained and mastered professionals. Brain surgery can be used to treat a number of conditions such as tumours, aneurysm, blood clots, epilepsyI. Parkinson’s disease, etc. It requires a neurosurgeon and a physician anesthesiologist who has received advanced clinical training in neurosurgery anesthesia. Most of the back related health issues can be resolved by physical conditioning and treatment, but certain advanced and critical cases require spine surgery. Aspects which result in spine damage are aging, improper body mechanics, trauma and structural abnormalities.
Different types of brain surgeries are performed to treat various conditions. Craniotomy is performed to remove a blood clot, tumour or abnormal tissue by removing a small piece of the skull and is put back in after the surgery. Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is when a battery-operated device is implanted in part of the brain to stimulate impulses in specific regions of the brain. It is the most common treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Neuroendocopy is when a small endoscope or thin tube is invaded through the mouth, the nose or a small incision in the skull to remove the growth of excess tissue. Some other common surgeries are Posterior Fossa Decompression and Thrombectomy. A unique branch in brain surgery is the Awake brain surgery, it is used to treat epilepsy seizures. Remaining conscious during the surgery helps the surgeon to monitor the parts of the brain that affect functions like vision, movement or speech.
Spine surgeries can be of open type or minimal invasive surgery. Traditionally spine surgery is of open type, where the site of operation is opened with an incision for the surgeon to view. But with technological advances it can easily be treated with minimal invasive surgery.