An implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a tiny battery-operated device that detects and stops abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias). An ICD continually monitors the heartbeat and, if necessary, administers electric shocks to reestablish a normal cardiac rhythm.
If you’ve a dangerously fast heartbeat that prevents your heart from pumping enough blood to the rest of your body (ventricular irregular heartbeat as well as ventricular fibrillation), or if you are at high risk of developing such a heart rhythm problem (arrhythmia), usually due to a weak cardiac muscle, you will need an ICD.

There are basically two kinds:

• A typical ICD is placed in the chest with cables connecting it to the heart. Surgical treatment is performed for the implant surgery.

• A further technique is a superficial ICD (S-ICD), which would be implanted beneath the skin on the side of the chest, below the armpit. It’s attached to an electrode that extends along the middle of the breastbone.

The following are some of the hazards associated with having an ICD implanted:
• Infection at the implant site
• Swelling, bleeding, or bruising
• Blood vessel damage from ICD leads
• Infection at the implant site
• Blood is pouring through the heart valve where the ICD wire is inserted.
• Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

Insertion of a ventricular assist device (VAD) or total artificial heart (TAH)
LVAD(Left ventricular assist device)
LVAD is a mechanical pump that is transplanted and device connected to the patient’s heart. Its purpose is to assist, or in extreme situations, take over, the left ventricle’s pumping function.

The device is placed immediately below the diaphragm in the abdomen and pumps blood from the left ventricle (the heart’s primary pumping chamber) to the aorta (the main artery that carries oxygenated blood to the body).

An external, wearable system with a controller and two batteries is connected through a driveshaft, that is an external wire. After recovering from surgery, the majority of LVAD patients are discharged from the hospital and are able to continue their regular activities and interests at home.